Archive for November 12th, 2008|Daily archive page

Mormons, proxy baptism, and the Jews

The Salt Lake City Temple is the largest of 128 currently operated by the Mormon Church

The Salt Lake City Temple is the largest of 128 currently operated by the Mormon Church

Jewish leaders have expressed renewed opposition to Holocaust victims being baptized by proxy by members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Later Day Saints (Mormons) despite their agreement in 1995 to stop the practice. Many Jews find the baptisms offensive and a possible threat to identifying their relatives as Jewish victims of Nazi persecution.  Mormons, for their part, see the practice as an inoffensive expression of their care for the salvation of others and the matter touches on a number of their core religious beliefs.

Mormons, like many conservative Christians, believe that a person must be baptized in order to qualify for the highest levels of salvation, a.k.a. exaltation; but they believe that the baptism can be just as effective if conducted by proxy after the person’s death.  In his recent book God is not Great noted atheist and critic of religion Christopher Hitchens explains and comments on the practice as follows:

It must be said for the “Latter-day Saints” (these conceited words were added to Smith’s original “Church of Jesus Christ” in 1833) that they have squarely faced one of the great difficulties of revealed religion. This is the problem of what to do about those who were born before the exclusive “revelation,” or who died without ever having the opportunity to share in its wonders. Christians used to resolve this problem by saying that Jesus descended into hell after his crucifixion, where it is thought that he saved or converted the dead. … The Mormons have improved on this rather backdated solution with something very literal-minded. They have assembled a gigantic genealogical database at a huge repository in Utah, and are busy filling it with the names of all people whose births, marriages, and deaths have been tabulated since records began. This is very useful if you want to look up your own family tree, and as long as you do not object to having your ancestors becoming Mormons. Every week, at special ceremonies in Mormon temples, the congregations meet and are given a certain quota of names of the departed to “pray in” to their church. This retrospective baptism of the dead seems harmless enough to me, but the American Jewish Committee became incensed when it was discovered that the Mormons had acquired the records of the Nazi “final solution,” and were industriously baptizing what for once could truly be called a “lost tribe”: the murdered Jews of Europe. For all its touching inefficacy, this exercise seemed in poor taste. I sympathize with the American Jewish Committee, but I nonetheless think that the followers of Mr. Smith should be congratulated for hitting upon even the most simpleminded technological solution to a problem that has defied solution ever since man first invented religion.

Despite Hitchens’s inauthentic praise, most Americans find baptism for the dead to be an odd and bizzare practice.  Mitt Romney, the first Mormon with a legitimate shot at winning a major party’s nomination for president, was asked numerous questions about his religious beliefs earlier this year, including at least one about proxy baptism.  While acknowledging that he had performed such baptisms, he declined giving details and referred the reporter to the LDS Church for further information.  In my experience, Mormons typically don’t volunteer information on proxy baptism (or their other ordinances) to non-Mormons and seem somewhat defensive about the practices, which are all conducted in their temples which are off-limits to non-Mormons and even many Mormons who participate inadequately in the life of the church.

This statue of Jesus is a well-known image among LDS members

This statue of Jesus is a well-known image among LDS members

Most commonly, proxy baptisms are conducted by a relative of the deceased (thus, as Hitchens points out, the vigorous interest in genealogy research among Mormons) or with at least the permission of a relative of the deceased.  The church actively encourages members to conduct such proxy baptisms for as many people as possible.  In their eagerness to do this, some Mormons began using sources other than their family trees to find people to get baptized for, like concentration camp records and the Israeli archives.  Despite rules put in place, LDS members have been baptized for Catholic popes and saints, the aforementioned Holocaust victims, and even Adolf Hitler and Eva Braun.  At times, Mormon missionaries have baptised (living) people who clearly had no intention of becoming a Mormon, or even of understanding the event—the infamous “baseball baptisms“—just to preserve the people’s chances of salvation in the afterlife. Note that, according to Mormon dogma, the mere fact of a baptism—proxy or otherwise—doesn’t make a person a Mormon or ensure salvation; the person must, in the afterlife, accept various beliefs and such in order to make the baptism effective.

Despite what Hitchens wrote, baptism for the dead doesn’t solve all of the doctrinal problems.  Namely, what about those people who left no historical records or who had lazy descendants who couldn’t be bothered to do their temple work? Apparently, people who didn’t have a proxy baptism done for them will still be okay and able to become a Mormon in the afterlife through some mechanism or other that wasn’t made particularly clear to me (eschatological beliefs are frequently difficult to pin down).  If this is so, then doing a proxy baptism for someone seems superfluous, since they’ll be fine anyway.  It makes the ordinances just seem like busy work or worse.

Incidentally, I recently visited a Mormon discussion forum asking if the church had anything like a “do not baptize” registry that I could put myself on.  As with all of my conversations with Mormons, including the three I had with their missionaries this past summer (thanks for the free Book of Mormon and the discussions, Elders Humphrey and Poulson) the folks on the forum were very pleasant and polite.  After fielding their queries about why I’d want to take such a chance and their attempts to dissuade me (“just in case”) and I eventually obtained an address for the Family History Library in Salt Lake City and an indication that they might be able to handle such a request, but I’ve yet to write them to see if such an opt-out is possible.  Even if it is, I’m not sure I’d go through with it; I have Mormon relatives and I’d hate to cause them any grief just to make a point; that wouldn’t be a very loving thing to do. In any event the actuaries predict I have many decades yet to live.  Hopefully the Jews and Mormons can reach an agreement on how to proceed with this that demonstrates mutual respect and tolerance, though I think that’ll be tricky.

Entire country sinking, may need to be relocated

As hinted at by the crescent on their flag, the Maldives is a predominantly Muslim nation

As hinted at by the crescent on their flag, the Maldives is a predominantly Muslim nation

CNN reports that the nation of the Maldives, located entirely on a series of coral islands in the Indian Ocean, is in danger of being swamped by rising sea levels.  The highest point in the whole country is just two meters above sea level and doesn’t even have a name; recent storms have flooded the entire nation.

They just held their first competitive elections in 30 years and their new president,  Mohamed Nasheed, is serious about addressing his nation’s big problem.  He has suggested they acquire land in another country and move their entire nation there, saying “We do not want to end up in refugee tents if the worst happens.”  Nearby India and Sri Lanka are possibilities, as is Australia, which has plenty of room to spare.  Nasheed reports that after initial inquiries, several other countries have been “receptive” to the idea of the Maldives, a country of about 270,000 people, moving there.

Malé, the capital of the Maldives,  is less than one square mile but has about 105,000 people, all less than two meters above sea level. (click to enlarge)

Malé, the capital of the Maldives, is less than one square mile but has about 105,000 people, all less than two meters above sea level. (click to enlarge)

The nation is made up of 1,192 islands, about 250 of which are inhabited.  Tourism is a chief industry there, bringing in over $1 billion U.S. dollars per anum.  The new administration is talking about setting aside part of this revenue for use in the event that the population does need to be relocated somewhere.

The Astralian reports that global warming has been overstated as a cause of concern for Maldivians.  A much bigger problem, they say, is increased mining for coral, about the only indiginous building material available in the country.  This removes barrier reefs that protect the islands of the country from erosion from waves and storm surges.  The incoming government indicates that they will seek international help to strengthen and preserve the nation’s natural reef barriers.

Some climate models predict that sea level could rise by as much as 59 centimeters (about two feet) in the next century; this would put most of the Maldives under water.